• Fundamental Analysis
  • Micro Analysis
  • How to Use it

What is Fundamental Analysis

  • Fundamental analysis is the cornerstone of investing
  • It is the study of all the relevant factors that affect an economy, market or asset class in order to find its intrinsic (fair) value
  • Analysis of factors affecting the economy as a whole is known as macroeconomic analysis
  • Analysis of the factors affecting a specific company is known as microeconomic analysis

What is the Intrinsic Value

  • Fundamental analysis assumes that the price on the stock market does not fully reflect a stock’s “real” value
  • This “real” value is known as the stock intrinsic value 
  • The second assumption of fundamental analysis is that in the long run, the stock price will reflect the fundamentals
  • If this intrinsic value is above the current market price, then the asset is underpriced and should be bought
  • If the intrinsic value is below the current market price, then the asset is overpriced and should be sold

Macroeconomic Analysis

  • Macroeconomic analysis is used in the evaluation of currencies, bonds, commodities, and stock indices
  • At the macro level, analysis examines factors that affect the economy in its entirety
  • Interest rates, inflation, rate of growth, employment, politics, and national sentiment
  • This analysis will tell us if the economy is expanding or contracting or if its booming or in a slump

Economic and Business Cycle

  • From boom going into recession the economic growth will slow and we will witness a decrease in investments and production
  • From recession to slump inflation will drop and unemployment will rapidly increase
  • From slump to recovery interest rates will decrease and housing activity and spending will increase 
  • From recovery to boom we have growth, spending will increase, inflation will rise, and employment will reach its full capacity
  • Where we are in the cycle decides on which asset class we should invest in. e.g. in recession stocks go down and bonds up


Microeconomic Analysis

  • Microeconomic analysis is used in the evaluation of  individual stocks or corporate bonds
  • The term refers to the analysis of the economic well-being of a financial entity as opposed to only its price movements
  • Traders analyze the financial statements of a company in order to decide if its stock is a good investment
  •  Is the company’s revenue growing? Is it making profits? Can it repay its debts? What is the fair value of its stock?
  • In the long run, a stock’s price is driven by a company’s ability to grow sales and earnings but also the economic conditions
  • Micro Economics
  • Company Financials
  • Financial Statements
  • Financial Ratios

Financial Statements – The Balance Sheet

  • Traders analyze the financial statements of a company in order to decide if its stock is a good investment
  • The balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statements reveal the financial makeup of the company
  • The balance sheet compares the company’s assets to its liabilities and owner’s equity
  • The balance sheet explains to us how the company raises money in order to acquire its assets

Financial Statements – Income and Cash Flow

  • The income or profit and loss statement reveals how the company earns money
  • The cash flow statement shows how the company uses its cash to operate and how much of this cash is borrowed
  • In the profit and loss statement, expenses are deducted from the revenues to show the firm’s net profits (earnings)
  • The higher the company’s net profits, the bigger the returns for the owners, paid as shareholders dividend
  • The higher the profitability and hence the dividends of a company, the more attractive it is



Financial Ratios – Valuation

  • Out of several investment valuation ratios, the most commonly used is the P/E ratio
  • Since price alone doesn’t show the value, this ratio compares the price of the share to the amount of earnings it generates
  • It provides investors with a quick idea of how much they are paying for each $1 of earnings
  • Investors compare the Price Earnings ratio of one company to its competition – the best shares are those with the LOWEST PE

Financial Ratios – Dividend Yield

  • When a company earns profits, it can reinvest the profits into the business, called retained earnings
  • The part of the profits that is not retained, is distributed as a payment to shareholders, called dividend
  • Dividend yield measures in how many years, you will get your initial investment back
  • Investors compare the dividend yield ratio of one company to its competition – the best shares are those with the HIGHEST DY

Financial Ratios – Liquidity

  • Liquidity ratios look into the ability of a company to pay its debts and still fund its ongoing operations


  • The Current Ratio reveals whether a company has enough cash to pay off its short-term liabilities
  • A low liquidity ratio means the company does not have a lot of available cash which could hinder its operations
  • Investors compare the current ratio of one company to its competition – the best shares are those with the HIGHEST ratio

Financial Ratios – Return

  • Return on Assets (ROA) shows how the company is employing its assets to make profits – the higher the return the better
  • Return on Equity (ROE) measures how much the shareholders earned for their investment – the higher the ratio the better
  • Investors compare these ratios of one company to its competition – the best shares are those with the HIGHEST ratio

Financial Ratios – Debt

  • The Debt Ratio compares a company’s debt to its assets in order to know about the level of leverage – the lower the better
  • Debt-Equity Ratio measures how much creditors have committed to the company versus its shareholders – low percentage means low leverage 
  • Investors compare these ratios of one company to its competition – the best shares are those with the LOWEST ratios

Microeconomic Analysis

  • Among the dozens of financial ratios available, we’ve only covered few
  • These covered will give you a fair idea about the share you want to invest in
  • It is essential to research more about microeconomic analysis and use it for future better educated trading decisions

The Story of Desmond Leong

Desmond is your average trader. He started off blowing up 7 (or more.. lost count) accounts amounting to more than 500k, tested over 30 Expert Advisors (EAs) to no success and spent over 10k on stupid useless courses.

Today he runs an award winning trading team and provides market analysis and webinars to some of the largest brokers such as IC Markets, XM, Axi, Tickmill, FXCM, VantageFX, easyMarkets and more.

He now has a simple goal: Creating an army of traders who trade profitably together and keep each other accountable. Guiding them with the most comprehensive no-BS free tutorials so that no one ever needs to go through the pain he went through himself to become a profitable trader.

My Trading Strategy


11 Collyer Quay
The Arcade
Singapore 049317


(t) +65 9336 1245
(e) hq@theforexarmy.com

All rights reserved. All other trademarks appearing on this Website are the property of their respective owners.

© Copyright TFA GLOBAL Pte. Ltd.


Trading in foreign exchange (“Forex”) on margins entails high risk and is not suitable for all investors. Past performance is not an indication of future results. In this case, as well, the high degree of leverage can act both against you and for you. Before you decide to invest in foreign exchange, you should carefully assess your investment objectives, experience, financial possibilities and willingness to take risks. There is a possibility that you will lose your initial investment partially or completely. Therefore, you should not invest any funds that you cannot afford to completely lose in a worst-case scenario. You should also be aware of all the risks associated with foreign exchange trading and contact an independent financial advisor in case of doubt.

Trading Derivatives carries a high level of risk to your capital and you should only trade with money you can afford to lose. Trading Derivatives may not be suitable for all investors, so please ensure that you fully understand the risks involved and seek independent advice if necessary.

Leverage enables traders, using a relatively small amount of money, to take a position that is many times the initial investment. This leverage effect can work both in your favour and to your detriment. The Forex market opens up the possibility to utilize this leverage effect to a high degree; at the same time, however, it also opens up the risk of experiencing high losses. Please trade with caution when you use leverage in trading or investing. Your risk is particularly not limited to the initial investment, but can quickly fall into a negative range in the event of strong movements, meaning you may be obligated to pay far more than your initial wager.